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Chondrogenic regeneration using bone marrow clots and a porous polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold by 3D printing

Periodical: Tissue Eng Part A ISBN: 1937-3341  Date: 2014/12/23  Language: Eng

Authors:Yao, Q., Wei, B., Liu, N., Li, C., Guo, Y., Shamie, A. N., Chen, J., Cheng, T., Jin, C., Xu, Y., Bian, X., Zhang, X., Wang, L.
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Abstract
Scaffolds play an important role in directing three-dimensional (3D) cartilage regeneration. Our recent study reported the potential advantages of bone marrow clots (MC) in promoting extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold chondrogenic regeneration. The aim of this study is to build a new scaffold for MC, with improved characteristics in mechanics, shaping, and biodegradability, compared to our previous study. To address this issue, the current study prepared a 3D porous polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold combined with MC (Group A), while the control group (Group B) utilized a bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) seeded PCL-HA scaffold. The results of in vitro cultures and in vivo implantation demonstrated that although an initial obstruction of nutrient exchange caused by large amounts of fibrin and erythrocytes led to a decrease in the ratio of live cells in Group A, these scaffolds also showed significant improvements in cell adhesion, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation with porous recanalization in the later culture, compared to Group B. After 4 weeks of in vivo implantation, Group A scaffolds have a superior performance in DNA content, Sox9 and RunX2 expression, cartilage lacuna-like cell and ECM accumulation, when compared to Group B. Furthermore, Group A scaffold size and mechanics were stable during in vitro and in vivo experiments, unlike the scaffolds in our previous study. Our results suggest that the combination with MC proved to be a highly efficient, reliable, and simple new method that improves the biological performance of 3D PCL-HA scaffold. The MC-PCL-HA scaffold is a candidate for future cartilage regeneration studies.
Keywords
*Foreign Bodies, Animals, Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Differentiation, Cell Lineage, Cell Proliferation, Collagen, Drug Combinations, Endothelial Cells/*pathology, Female, Laminin, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred CBA, Neoplastic Stem Cells/*pathology, Primary Cell Culture, Proteoglycans, Sarcoma, Experimental/*pathology, Skin Neoplasms/*pathology, Skin/*pathology

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